Prehistoric Fossils Could Rewrite Human History

Paleontologists in Germany have discovered 9.7 million-year-old fossilised teeth that a German politician has hailed as potentially “rewriting” human history.

The dental remains were found by scientists sifting through gravel and sand in a former bed of the Rhine river near the town of Eppelsheim.

They resemble those belonging to “Lucy”, a 3.2 million-year-old skeleton of an extinct primate related to humans and found in Ethiopia.

However, they do not resemble those of any other species found in Europe or Asia.

Scientists were so confused by the find they held off from publishing their research for the past year, Deutsche Welle reports.

Herbert Lutz, director at the Mainz Natural History Museum and head of the research team, told local media: “They are clearly ape teeth. Their characteristics resemble African finds that are four to five million years younger than the fossils excavated in Eppelsheim.

“This is a tremendous stroke of luck, but also a great mystery.”

At a press conference announcing the discovery, the mayor of Mainz suggested the find could force scientists to reassess the history of early humans.

Symantec SSL/TLS certificates

Google’s Chrome browser has already started the process of ending support for Symantec SSL/TLS certificates. This includes companies owned by Symantec including Thawte, Verisign, Equifax, GeoTrust and RapidSSL.

Chrome 66 is ending support for Symantec certificates issued before June 1, 2016 on the following schedule:

  • The ‘Canary’ release already ended support for these certificates. It was released on January 20th, 2018.
  • The Beta release for Chrome 66 will be released on March 15th.
  • The Stable release for Chrome 66 will be released on April 17th.

If you are running a Symantec certificate issued before June 1, 2016, and you do not replace that certificate, then from April 17th onwards this is what your site will look like to site visitors:

As you can see, the error is described as NET::ERR_CERT_SYMANTEC_LEGACY, meaning that your site is using a legacy Symantec certificate that is no longer supported.

Starting with Google Chrome version 70, all remaining Symantec certificates will stop working, including those issued after June 1, 2016. Chrome 70’s release schedule for Canary, Beta and Stable is July 20th, September 13th and October 16th respectively.

To check if your certificate will be affected by this change, you can visit this page and enter your website’s hostname in the form provided: https://www.websecurity.symantec.com/support/ssl-checker.

If your site will have an issue, the page should give you a warning. Make sure you just enter the hostname and remove the https:// prefix and the ending slash.

An alternative way to check if your website will have a problem is to download Chrome’s bleeding edge ‘canary’ version and visit your website. Then check the DevTools in Chrome for any warning message regarding your SSL/TLS certificate.

You can find more info on the official Google Security Blog.

Please help spread the word so that site owners are not caught by surprise when this change goes live next month.


Sourse : Wordfence Blog

Hygiene Practices Of The Middle Ages

Medeival

BY MEGAN SENSENEY

 

1. Chamber Pots and Privies

Widespread use of indoor plumbing wasn’t all that common until recently. If you were unlucky enough to be poor in the Middle Ages, you were basically forced to clear your system where you could, and if you were dealing with anything solid, you were tasked with burying it after you were finished. If you were wealthy in some fashion, your situation got a little bit better, though not by much.

In many Tudor houses you’d find something called a privy, otherwise known as an outhouse. In the best-case scenario, a privy would be a small shack that would afford you some privacy, though it’d still consist of a slab of wood over a hole in the ground. The waste would immediately plunge into a moat where it would be carried away for you to never see again.

Winston Churchill's Chamber Pot

If your privy happened to be outside of your home, there’s a slim chance that you’d want to trek outside in the middle of the night just for a quick bathroom break. In this situation, you’d use something called a chamber pot, which was essentially a decorative bowl that served as your toilet during the night. While not exactly a bad idea, the thought of our own waste sitting in a room with us the entire night is definitely foreign to all of us today.

What happens after a chamber pot has been filled is even worse. The waste would eventually be tossed straight out of a window, down onto the streets below. Those who were in charge of that task for the day often yelled out “garde loo” which was the warning for anyone down below to get out of the way.

2. Nosegays

With the presence of human waste in the streets, you can imagine that those living in the Middle Ages probably got used to a certain stench in the air, meaning they likely couldn’t tell if they were smelling particularly ripe themselves. Indoor toilets weren’t even a common occurrence, so you can probably guess that showers were non-existent, and baths weren’t too common, either. Couple that with the fact that deodorant wasn’t even a thought yet and…well, we’re sure you can imagine what an entire town of extremely dirty people might smell like, though you probably won’t want to.

They had to keep the odour at bay somehow, but with their limited resources, there weren’t a lot of ways to do it. Enter the nosegay. A nosegay was typically a small bunch of flowers or herbs, whether fresh or dried, that was either held in someone’s hand, tied around their wrist, or pinned to their clothing.

 

 

The Pretty Bar Maid 1778 "from the original picture by John Collet
The Pretty Bar Maid 1778 “from the original picture by John Collet

 

While we’re assuming that they actually did very little to combat the strong and constant stench of body odor, they essentially served as a personal air freshener for people as they went about their days. A nosegay was especially helpful when walking through a dense crowd of people, as you could pull the bouquet to your nose for a whiff of flowers while you were in a sea of smelly bodies.

There’s even a mention of nosegays in a nursery rhyme that’s apparently far more sinister than you might think. Though its origins have been disputed, “Ring Around the Rosie” is said to be about the Black Death, a plague that killed millions of people. The line “pocket full of posies” is said to reference people who carried flowers in their pockets to combat the constant smell of death in their cities.

3. Laundry Detergent

Just like those in the Middle Ages didn’t bathe as often as we do now, they definitely didn’t wash their clothes as frequently, either. Unlike today, clothing had to be made by hand and couldn’t be mass produced in any way, meaning that people typically had fewer items of clothing to their names. They often wore specific items for weeks or even months until they decided they couldn’t go without a wash any longer.

When did they wash them? Well, you might be surprised to hear that they did have something that resembled laundry detergent back then, though it was far from any Tide or Downy products we have now. If you were just doing a general load of laundry, you’d probably use something called soapwort, a flowery herb that’s like nature’s own little bar of soap—add some water and it actually lathers.

Anyone who’s into eco-friendly solutions will be pleased to know it’s something that you can still grow today to work into your own laundry routine. Stain removal was a different story, though, and it typically involved some unsavory substances that most of us would probably never even want to touch, let alone work into our clothes. They might include ashes mixed with lye, crushed green grapes, chicken feathers, or—worst of all—urine.

We can guess that, even when doing laundry, large amounts of water probably weren’t too readily available, meaning that anything you put on your clothes to “clean” them didn’t get rinsed out very well. Couple that with the fact that most people didn’t change their clothes very often, and you have just another reason why no one smelled that pleasant back then.

4. Makeup

For some, makeup is an essential part of their daily lives that they don’t even consider leaving the house without. Today, there are many formulas available—from tinted moisturisers to full-coverage foundations—but we can guarantee that all of them are free from at least one nasty ingredient: lead.

In the Middle Ages, lead was a common ingredient in a type of makeup called Venetian ceruse, a substance that was essentially a combination of makeup and skin whitener. For those who were born as upper class citizens, extremely pale skin was considered to be beautiful and high fashion, most likely because it helped distinguish them from laborers, who would have tanned skin from their time spent outside in the sun.

However, what many believed made them beautiful also made them incredibly sick, as the lead within their makeup absorbed into their skin and caused lead poisoning, something they apparently weren’t aware of at the time. The constant use of white lead in face makeup would cause drastic symptoms such as hair loss and severe skin damage, and even death when worn long enough.

Things like eyeshadow and eyeliner were often used during this period, along with lip products like lipstick and lip balms. Most lip products were made with either oil or beeswax combined with natural dyes made from wine or plant matter, like flower petals. Eyebrows were also just as big of a deal then as they are now, though there wasn’t really a quick solution like an eyebrow pencil available. Instead, those who were looking for a little more fullness used mouse hair to fill in areas of their brows that weren’t looking so hot.

5. Sewers

It should come as no surprise that sewer systems were basically non-existent in the Middle Ages, so the people who lived in that time had to make things work with what they had available. Those who had privies had to empty them at some point, though the process essentially consisted of putting the waste into a larger hole called a cesspit.

Cesspits were often found in cellars or out in gardens, though many people placed them further away from their homes, for obvious reasons. However, most people didn’t empty their cesspits nearly as often as they should, which left quite a job for the person who was hired for the task. These men were often called “gongs” or “jakes” and, thankfully, they were paid very well for the job given to them.

When it came to water, only the richest people of the time could afford to pay privately owned companies for the water they needed, whether for drinking or otherwise. Peasants, however, weren’t as lucky, as their main source of water often came out of a pipe system that was lined with lead.

Though no water source back then would be considered high quality, peasants had it the worse, as the water within these lead tanks and pipes often became stagnant, making it a breeding ground for bacteria at times. As this was not a time of great scientific innovation, little was done to filter water the water people used. There were even numerous rumors that people in the Middle Ages didn’t drink water at all, though they have been disproven at this point.

6. Medicine

Kiss the modern medicine cabinet goodbye, because everything you know about taking care of cuts, scrapes, and sickness would be pretty much unheard of in the Middle Ages. Though medical practitioners did believe that diet could play a role in restoring health, they also believed in using the resources around them to the fullest extent possible, sometimes in some pretty weird ways.

One of the best-known treatments from the Middle Ages was the use of leeches for a process called bloodletting, a way to remove a person’s blood to help cure them of an illness. The doctor would attach a leech to the patient’s skin in the area that seemed to be most affected by whatever was ailing them, and then the leech would feed on their blood until it eventually fell off. Cupping is another type of therapy they used that has actually made a comeback recently—the technique involves placing heated cups over certain areas of the skin to increase blood flow and reduce inflammation in the body.

For things like scrapes and burns, plants and herbs were often used to create salves and ointments that could be applied much like Neosporin is today. Certain herbs and barks were often brewed into teas that could be taken internally to help with things like fever or headache.

Many of the plants and herbs used during this time can still be found today and are typically used for cooking or as essential oils. The next time you chop up some basil in the kitchen or rub some myrrh essential oil on a paper cut, think about how it’s almost like taking a quick step back in time—just without the actual Middle Ages part, fortunately.


Source

Funny Wildlife Photos

“Eh What’s Up Doc?” by Olivier Colle, Highly Commended

Each year, Bored Panda hosts a “Funniest Wildlife Photos” competition in order to raise awareness about wildlife conservation. The competition began in 2015 and has since attracted some of the best professional and amateur photographers who want to showcase their work…and the results are always hilarious!

Enjoy the gallery!

Mercury Found Lurking In The Permafrost

Mercury

If It Melts, We Could Be In Trouble

 

by MICHELLE STARR 6 FEB 2018

 

The northern hemisphere’s permafrost regions have been concealing a really unpleasant surprise: mercury. A lot of mercury. Nearly twice as much mercury as the rest of the planet’s natural mercury combined.

Researchers from the US Geological Survey studied core samples from the Alaskan permafrost, and their estimates show 793 million kilograms of mercury have been trapped in the northern hemisphere’s permafrost since the last Ice Age.

This finding has grave implications if the permafrost melts away.

And the melt has already started happening – in the Arctic, melting permafrost has revealed some giant (thankfully dormant) viruses tens of thousands of years old that could awaken and wreak havoc.

Deforestation has caused permafrost melt in Siberia, which in turn caused the ground to collapse into a giant crater; and in other parts of Siberia, permafrost thaw has been linked to the appearance of mysterious sinkholes and craters.

Now there’s also mercury to worry about. If the permafrost continues to melt, it could release a tremendous amount of mercury, and this could, in turn, impact ecosystems all around the world.

“There would be no environmental problem if everything remained frozen, but we know the Earth is getting warmer,” said lead author Paul Schuster, a hydrologist at the US Geological Survey.

“Although measurement of the rate of permafrost thaw was not part of this study, the thawing permafrost provides a potential for mercury to be released – that’s just physics.”

Natural mercury enters the permafrost from the atmosphere. As part of the mercury cycle, atmospheric mercury vapour binds with organic material in the soil, which is then buried by sediment. Over time, it is frozen into the permafrost.

To gauge the mercury levels in the permafrost, Schuster and his team drilled 13 core samples between 2004 and 2012 from different sites around Alaska, selected for their diverse soil characteristics to represent the entire northern hemisphere.

The measurements taken by the team were consistent with published results for other tundra soils, and with 11,000 measurements taken from 4,926 other non-permafrost sites around the world.

According to the team’s calculations, there are 793 gigagrams (793 million kilograms), or more than 15 million gallons, of mercury frozen in the northern hemisphere’s permafrost. That is, the researchers said, roughly 10 times the amount of all human-caused mercury emissions over the last 30 years.

If we include non-permafrost soils in the permafrost regions, there are 1,656 gigagrams of mercury stowed away down there. This is nearly twice as much as is found in non-permafrost regions, the oceans, and the atmosphere combined.

If it were to leach into the waterways, it could have grave implications. Inorganic mercury can be transformed by microbes into methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin. Cases of methylmercury poisoning have occurred in humans after eating fish from methylmercury-contaminated water, and it can cause central nervous system damage and birth defects.

“There’s a significant social and human health aspect to this study,” said Steve Sebestyen, a research hydrologist at the USDA Forest Service in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. Sebestyen was not involved with the study.

“The consequences of this mercury being released into the environment are potentially huge because mercury has health effects on organisms and can travel up the food chain, adversely affecting native and other communities.”

And if the mercury gets into the atmosphere, it could travel around the world.

The next step in Schuster’s research is to model how climate change could cause the permafrost to release mercury, and how it would spread around the world.

“24 percent of all the soil above the equator is permafrost, and it has this huge pool of locked-up mercury,” he said.

“What happens if the permafrost thaws? How far will the mercury travel up the food chain? These are big-picture questions that we need to answer.”

The research was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

GDPR

GDPR

What is GDPR?

GDPR stands for General Data Protection Regulation and it is a new data protection law in the EU, which comes into force in May 2018.

The aim of the GDPR is to give citizens of the EU control over their personal data, and change the approach of organizations across the world towards data privacy.

The GDPR provides much stronger rules than existing laws and is much more restrictive than the “EU cookie law.”

For instance, users must confirm that their data can be collected, there must a clear privacy policy showing what data is going to be stored, how it is going to be used, and provide the user a right to withdraw the consent to the use of personal data (consequently deleting the data), if required.

The GDPR law applies to data collected about EU citizens from anywhere in the world. As a consequence, a website with any EU visitors or customers must comply with the GDPR, which means that virtually all websites and businesses must comply.

To better understand the regulation, take a look at the publication of the regulations HERE

 

Should GDPR be taken seriously?

Webmasters have time until May 2018 to comply with the regulations set by the GDPR. The penalty for non compliance can be 4% of annual global turnover, up to a maximum of €20 million.

There are various slabs of penalties according to the seriousness of the breach, which have been described in the FAQ section of the GDPR portal.

Supervisory Authorities (SA) of different member states are going to be set up, with the full support of the law. Each member state may have multiple SAs, depending on the constitutional, administrative and organizational structures. There are various powers that SAs will have:

  • carry out audits on websites,
  • issue warnings for non-compliance,
  • issue corrective measures to be followed with deadlines.

SAs have both investigative and corrective powers to check compliance with the law and suggest changes to be compliant.

The majority of the firms had taken up the GDPR guidelines as their top data protection priority, with 76% of them prepared to spend in excess of $1 million on GDPR. This shows that owning to a substantial presence in the EU, large corporations are taking up the GDPR compliance seriously.

So What Counts as Personal Data?

Any data that can be used to identify a living person directly or indirectly is classed as personal data.

For example:

  • Name
  • Address
  • Email address
  • Social security number
  • Location data
  • IP address

 

What Is Sensitive Personal Data?

Sensitive personal data is a special class of personal data that has to be even more carefully handled. It includes factors such as:

  • Race
  • Health status
  • Sexual orientation
  • Religious beliefs
  • Political beliefs

 

What Rights Do Data Subjects Have Under GDPR?

As explained by the ICO, data subjects have the following rights concerning their personal data:

  1. Information
  2. Access
  3. Rectification
  4. Erasure
  5. Restrictions on processing
  6. Data portability
  7. Objection
  8. Revision of automated decisions or profiling

 

If you are a webmaster you must look for:

(a) Breach notification

Under the GDPR compliance, if your website is experiencing a data breach of any kind, that breach needs to be communicated to your users.

A data breach may result in a risk for the rights and freedoms of individuals, due to which notifying users in a timely manner becomes necessary. Under the GDPR, a notification must be sent within 72 hours of first becoming aware of a breach. Data processors are also required to notify users as well as the data controllers, immediately after first becoming aware of a data breach.

(b) Data collection, processing and storage

Three elements of this: Right to Access, Right to Be Forgotten and Data Portability.

The right to access provides users with complete transparency in data processing and storage – what data points are being collected, where are these data points being processed and stored, and the reason behind the collection, processing and storage of the data. Users will also have to be provided a copy of their data free of cost within 40 days.

The right to be forgotten gives users an option to erase personal data, and stop further collection and processing of the data. This process involves the user withdrawing consent for their personal data to be used.

The data portability clause of the GDPR provides users a right to download their personal data, for which they have previously given consent, and further transmit that data to a different controller.

As a website owner, you first need to publish a detailed policy on which personal data points you’re using, how they are being processed and stored.

it may be wise to avoid data storage altogether in certain cases. For instance, contact forms could be set up to directly forward all communication to your email address instead of storing them anywhere on the web server.

(c) If you are a WordpPress site owner/webmaster Use of plugins – implications of WordPress GDPR compliance

Any plugins that you use will also need to comply with the GDPR rules. As a site owner, it is still your responsibility, though, to make sure that every plugin can export/provide/erase user data it collects in compliance with the GDPR rules.

In a nutshell:

  • Tell the user who you are, why you collect the data, for how long, and who receives it.
  • Get a clear consent [when required] before collecting any data.
  • Let users access their data, and take it with them.
  • Let users delete their data.
  • Let users know if data breaches occur.

Disclaimer. This post is not legal advice. I am not a lawyer!

The Angel Face

Lina Cavalieri

Natalina “Lina” Cavalieri

 

Her repeated face is the muse behind one of the most recognisable prints in interior design.

Lina Cavalieri (1874 – 1944) was an Italian opera singer, actress and monologist. Taking her as a muse and as a motif, many artists would return to Lina Cavalieri’s face again and again throughout their career.

The famous Italian artist Piero Fornasetti found the iconic face of Lina as he leafed through a 19th century French magazine and became fascinated with her.  The archetypal classic female features and enigmatic expression of Lina Cavalieri became Fornasetti’s most frequently used template, and upon which he based more than 350 variations.

Piero Fornasetti considered Lina Cavalieri’s face as another archetype – a quintessentially beautiful and classic image, like a Greek statue, enigmatic like the “Gioconda” and therefore able to take shape into the idea that was slowly building in his mind.  For him, this face became the ultimate enduring motif. With great modesty all these works were reproduced on a series of everyday objects like the plates he created.

Piero Fornasetti

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Much of Lina’s early life has been romanticised including accounts of time spent as an orphan in a convent from which she allegedly ran away with a travelling theatre troupe! In fact she was never orphaned as a child, but it was a hard life none-the-less. As the eldest of five children she was expected to help raise her siblings, and, as soon as she was old enough, to work to supplement the family income. She was sent to train as a seamstress, but lacking the talent or inclination for that profession turned instead to selling flowers in the streets of Rome and singing in front of rich houses.

A local music teacher heard her singing in this way and offered her a few free music lessons, which led in turn to Lina finding work in the cafe chantant (musical open air cafes) of Rome. Her pretty voice brought her immediate success in her new role and before long her considerable beauty caught the attention of a young army lieutenant who promised her a better life away from all her past tribulations – but his influential family intervened to break up their relationship by arranging his transfer to another City.

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In 1897 she found herself for the first time in England, singing the songs of her homeland at London’s reknowned Empire Theatre. From there she went St. Petersburg in Russia, creating a sensation which cause that country to take her forever to it’s heart and be the scene of some of her greatest successes.

Her career then took a sudden change in direction. In Paris she had met, and fallen in love with, Prince Alexander Baratinski, scion of a rich Russian family and young man about town. Baratinski eventually convinced Lina that she was wasting herself on the music hall stage and that her true future lay in grand opera. Consequently, she retired from variety and the music halls and began cultivating her voice under the tuition of Madame Marchesi in Paris and later Madame Mariani-Masi in Milan.

In 1905 Lina sang at the Sarah Bernhardt Theatre alongside the great tenor Enrico Caruso, and the following year accompanied him to New York where she spent the next two years singing with the Metropolitan Opera, afterwards touring in recitals. Whilst in New York she was engaged to sing at a Venetian Festa given by Mrs. Benjamin Guiness in honour of her good friend, the Duchess of Sutherland. The Duchess was much taken with the charming songbird who invited her, on her return to Europe, to be an honoured guest at a reception at the Sutherland’s home in London. Even at the height of her success, however, her past was not easily forgotten. At the Duchess of Sutherland’s reception she was formally introduced to Princess Vittoria di Teano from her homeland, causing that lady, much embarrassed, to immediately leave the house remarking that she was “not accustomed to meeting such persons.”

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In 1914, Lina retired from the opera stage, concentrating instead on her expanding cosmetics business, writing beauty columns for magazines and newspapers, and acting as promoter and business manager for her husband. In 1915, she returned to Italy to make motion pictures, and later returned to America where she made four more silent films. After five years of retirement she returned to opera to sing with her husband in the Chicago Grand Opera Company, also touring with him in the United states giving joint recitals. The couple eventually split and were divorced in Paris in 1927.

Retiring again from the opera stage, this time permanently, Lina came to be one of the leading beauty specialists in Europe, at the height of her success owning a string of salons not only in Paris, but also in the Hotel Carlton at Cannes; the Hotel Roseraie at Biatritz; the Hotel de Paris at Monte Carlo; and another at Le Touquet.

Later in life she returned to her Italian homeland where she lived with her last husband, the writer Arnaldo Pavoni , on the outskirts of Florence.

She died in tragic circumstances during the Second World War when, on 7th February, 1944, a bomb from an Allied bombing raid destroyed her home.

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Reproduced courtesy of Don Gillan, www.stagebeauty.net

How Women Ended Up Removing Hair From Their Entire Bodies

Hair removal is annoying. It’s tedious, painful, and unnecessary—we’d do just fine if we kept our body hair intact.
Still, if you’re a woman, there’s a good chance that hair removal is an essential part of your routine, despite the fact that it’s clearly unnatural. Evolution gave us hair, right? Why do we immediately want to get rid of it? And what explains the rising and falling trends of women’s body hair throughout the centuries?
Well, there’s no simple answer, but the history of hair removal is pretty fascinating.
We don’t know why people started removing their hair, although we can hazard a few guesses. Hair can hold in freezing water and parasites, and it’s a major disadvantage in a fight. The (wonderfully titled) Encyclopedia of Hair notes that beards were particularly dangerous in battle, so naturally, men began looking for alternatives.


Archaeologists have discovered cave paintings that show prehistoric people shaving, although they didn’t exactly have Gillette Mach 3 technology; they used clamshells, shark teeth, sharpened volcanic glass, and simple flint knives to accomplish the task.
Humans have been shaving since at least 6000 B.C., although razors didn’t really catch on until the Bronze Age (around 3000 B.C.). That’s when humans started using razors made of—wait for it—bronze.

Different cultures had markedly different expectations for body hair.

Ancient Egyptians would shave their entire bodies,  according to History Undressed.
The reason? Well, the desert is hot and Egyptians saw body hair as “uncivilised.” While they’d leave their eyebrows in place, upper-class people would get rid of just about everything else.

They had basic depilatory creams made with quicklime, although in a pinch, they could also grind the hair down with pumice stones (ouch). Meanwhile, in certain Middle Eastern countries, a bride’s attendants removed all of her hair the night before the wedding, except for her eyebrows and the hair on her head.
In ancient Greece, people generally left the hair on their heads intact, but sometimes cut the hair on their bodies and faces. Not only was “manscaping” common, it was frequently referenced in Greek art, including the Aristophanes play Thesmophoriazusae, which contains a humorous (though very crude) scene about the practice.

We know from Greek art that complete hair removal was more common for women than men, and men who went completely hairless were seen as effeminate.
Ancient Romans also valued hairless women, according to the poetry of Ovid>, who wrote these remarkably romantic lines:
How near I was to warning you, no rankness of the wild goat under your armpits, no legs bristling with harsh hair!

We’re swooning. In any case, other ancient Roman art depicts women with hairless bodies (while Roman artists didn’t really shy away from showing body hair on men), so we know that hair removal was somewhat gendered by this point.

So, what did people use to remove their hair at this point? They’d sometimes singe it off try not to think about how ancient Rome must have smelled—or pluck out the hairs one at a time with seashells or other implements. Shaving was common, but not exactly comfortable, since sharp blades were expensive.

Modern hair removal practices might have Darwin to blame.

Yes, that Darwin. According to author Rebecca Herzig‘s Plucked: A History of Hair Removal, Charles Darwin’s Descent of Man inspired a scientific obsession with “racial differences,” including differences in hair growth. (Never mind the fact that, from a genetic standpoint, race doesn’t exist in humans.)
The idea quickly spread, and the public latched onto the idea that body hair could show the genetic superiority—or inferiority—of a person.

As Herzig writes, 19th-century scientists thought that thick hair was “linked to criminal violence … and exceptional ‘animal vigor.’” Suddenly, hairlessness was en voguefor Western women.
That’s about the time that advertisers got involved.

Fashion and advertising spread shaving.

Despite the Darwinian influence, leg and underarm hair wasn’t much of a concern for women in the early 1900s.

“Clothes were so concealing that it was rare to see bare legs or underarms, so removing hair there wasn’t an issue,Vox.“Before the 1910s, depilatories for those areas were used primarily by actresses or dancers, or for surgery.”

But in 1915, Harper’s Bazaar began running ads for underarm hairlessness among women wearing the popular fashions of the time, like Greek- and Roman-style sleeveless dresses, and presumably, it was ads like these that got into people’s heads as the fashions changed (which is somewhat ironic, given the history of hair removal in ancient Greece).

As dresses began to shrink, women began discovering more unseemly hair. Advertisements played on insecurities, and in 1915, Gillette introduced the Milady Decollete, “the first razor designed and marketed specifically for women, and was billed in the extensive national advertising campaign as the ‘safest and most sanitary method of acquiring a smooth underarm,per author Russell B. Adams Jr
We should note that not everyone agrees with the idea that shortening skirts caused body hair trends to change.

“It is not clear when women began shaving their legs,” The Economist insists.;

“One idea, almost certainly wrong, is that the fashion began in the 1920s when western women’s skirts became shorter.”

The magazine stops short of providing an alternate explanation, however, so we’ll suggest one: Throughout the early 20th century, spending power increased, and many American women spent their extra money on magazines like Ladies Home Journal and Harper’s BazaarAdvertisers quickly zeroed in on this captive audience, and beauty product manufacturers encouraged women to think of their body hair as undesirable.

Razor manufacturer Schick notes that World War II may have accelerated the trend. “During World War II there was a shortage of silk stockings causing many women to shave their legs and to use leg makeup to give the appearance of stockings,” the company’s website claims.

While that makes for an interesting story, we couldn’t find many credible sources to back it up, although we did find images that suggest that women painted on nylons during the second World War. It’s possible that nylon shortages compelled some women to shave, however, so we’ll give Schick the benefit of the doubt.

In any case, women were dying to be hairless—literally.

For whatever reason, in the early 20th century, body hair was suddenly undesirable, and women had no shortage of options for hair removal. Unfortunately, many of those options were dangerous.
As Nadine Ajaka wrote for The Atlantic:

In the 1920s and ’30s, women used pumice stones or sandpaper to depilate, which caused irritation and scabbing. Some tried modified shoemaker’s waxes. Thousands were killed or permanently disabled by Koremlu, a cream made from the rat poison thallium acetate. It was successful in eliminating hair, and also in causing muscular atrophy, blindness, limb damage, and death.

By 1931, researchers had identified thallium—the active ingredient in Koremlu and some other depilatory creams—as a dangerous substance.

“A warning should be broadcast in regard to the dangers of the use of depilatories containing thallium,” Thomas P. Waring in a case study from 1931.

But that wasn’t the only hazardous hair removal technology, nor was it the most troubling. In the 1920s, beauticians began offering X-ray hair removal, which, while effective, was exceedingly dangerous.
Unfortunately, the priority of hair removal was firmly in place. “Around the same time, X-ray hair removal emerged as another treatment option,” Ajaka writes. “Women would sit for three or four minutes in front of the invisible rays of a boxed X-ray machine, and the radiation would do its work.”

“Women would sit for three or four minutes in front of the invisible rays of a boxed X-ray machine, and the radiation would do its work,” Ajaka writes.

An enterprising doctor named Albert C. Geyser quickly founded the Tricho Institute, which leased X-ray machines to beauticians after they’d completed a two-week training course. Advertisements for the Tricho System claimed that the “harmless” X-rays helped patients free themselves from “futile, dangerous and injurious means of removing disfiguring superfluous hair.

”That was, of course, untrue. Thousands of women ended up severely injured or disfigured by the devices, and x-ray hair removal was eventually outlawed.

Women had to wait decades for a more practical—and less dangerous—alternative. In 1998, a group at Massachusetts General Hospital published an article describing laser hair removal. It quickly caught on, as did a related technology called intense pulsed light (IPL) hair removal (which technically doesn’t involve a laser).
Today, these technologies make up That’s peanuts compared to the shaving industry, though, which brings in about $1 billion per year from American women alone.

In recent years, we’ve seen a feminist pushback against hair removal.

Who can forget the dyed armpit hair trend of 2015?

In that tongue-in-cheek movement, women like Destiny Moreno purposefully drew attention to their neon-colored armpits. It seemed to really bother people on social media—and that was the point.

“Nobody questions when a guy wearing a tank top does a selfie that shows his armpit hair,” Moreno told The New York Times.

“But if I happen to show my armpit hair in a selfie, it’s like, ‘Whoa, feminist witch asking for attention.’”

In 2016, a survey showed that about 77 percent of women between the ages of 16 and 24 remove the hair from their underarms. That’s down from 95 percent in 2013.

Love it or hate it, female body hair is coming back.

Beauty ideals change constantly, and we may see hair removal norms shift over the next decade to a more body-positive place. In any case, we’ve at least come a long way from the days of thallium depilatories—even if we’re not quite living in the hairy utopia of our dreams.

By Anna Cherry – healthyway.vom

The Most Dangerous Zodiac Sign

Each zodiac sign is special in its own way and characterized by different things. For instance, Virgos find it hard to forgive, while Aries are very keen to reach their goals.

However, in this article, we would be looking at a particular trait. Quite recently the FBI published the birth dates of serial killers and psychopaths, and from there we determined the most dangerous zodiac signs.

Gemini

Gemini is the least perilous sign, although most people say otherwise. This is because they are mostly happy go lucky and good-hearted people. They talk a lot but really do not have the intention of hurting or killing others.

Aquarius

Another harmless sign is the Aquarius because they believe in justice. They are easily one of the smartest people out there however, they possess really big egos. Even if they commit a crime, they smartly erase all shreds of evidence of it quickly.

Leo

Leos are a loud and proud person however they don’t really kill other people.

Libra

Libras are very patient people even though a bit more harmful. They can do a lot of harm when they lose their tempers.

Virgo

Virgos are in the middle although they lean more towards the dangerous side. They show psychopathic tendencies but don’t always resort to violence. They are more likely to indulge in fraudulent activities

Pisces

Pisces is a cute sign, however, many serial killers are born with this zodiac sign. For instance, John Gacy, Richard Ramirez, and Aileen Wuornos. They easily get addicted to things and are liable to commit murder.

Capricorn

Capricorns commit most mass murders, however, there aren’t many known killers born under this sign. Most Capricorns are law-abiding and not really dangerous, however when provoked, they prove extremely dangerous.

Aries

Aries are aggressive people. They are quick to be angry and can be violent, so you should avoid making an Aries mad, otherwise, you might be in trouble. However, they do not stay angry for long.

Taurus

Taurus are very aggressive and angry people as well. They are more prone to fraudulent activities than violence. This is because they just love expensive things and money.

Sagittarius

Some of the most mentally unstable people in history were born under this sign. For example Ted Bundy, Pablo Escobar, Joseph Stalin and more. They are mostly leaders and commit mass crimes.

Scorpion 

Most serial killers are Scorpios. The Scorpio sign is a sadistic sign and quite dangerous, so be careful around them.

Cancer

Cancers are the most dangerous sign. They are passive-aggressive and can get very jealous and this may lead them to commit murder and more crimes.

Occult Manuscripts Will Be Digitised

3,500 Occult Manuscripts Will Be Digitized & Made Freely Available Online, Thanks to Da Vinci Code Author Dan Brown

 

If there’s one thing The Da Vinci Code’s Dan Brown and “The Library of Babel”’s Jorge Luis Borges have in common it is a love for obscure religious and occult books and artifacts. But why do I compare Borges—one of the most highly regarded, but difficult, of Latin American poets and writers—to a famous American writer of entertaining paperback thrillers? One reason only: despite the vast differences in their styles and registers, Borges would be deeply moved by Brown’s recent act of philanthropy, a donation of €300,000 to Amsterdam’s Ritman Library, also known as the Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica House of Living Books.

The generous gift will enable the Ritman to digitize thousands of “pre-1900 texts on alchemy, astrology, magic, and theosophy,” reports Thu-Huong Ha at Quartz, including the Corpus Hermeticum (1472), “the source work on Hermetic wisdom”; Giordano Bruno’s Spaccio de la bestia trionfante (1584); and “the first printed version of the tree of life (1516): A graphic representation of the sefirot, the 10 virtues of God according to the Kabbalah.”

 

For now, the curious people can download the 44-page guide to the collection as a free ebook, and watch the animated video at the top, a breezy explainer of how the books will be transported, digitized, and uploaded. Just above, see a trailer for a documentary about the Ritman, founded by businessman Joost R. Ritman in 1984. The library holds over 20,000 volumes on mysticism, spirituality, religion, alchemy, Gnosticism, and more.

Many writers, like Brown, have found inspiration among the Ritman’s more accessible works . Now, thanks to the Da Vinci Code author’s magnanimity, a new generation of scholars will be able to virtually access, such as, the first English translation of the works of 17-century German mystic Jakob Böhme, which librarian and director Esther Ritman describes as “travelling in an entire new world.”

In an introductory essay, the Ritman notes that academic interest in occult and hermetic writing has increased lately among scholars like W.J. Hanegraaff, who tells “the ‘neglected’ story of how the intellectual community since the Renaissance has tried to come to terms with ‘esoteric’ and ‘occult’ currents present in Western culture.” That those currents are as much a part of the culture as the scientific or industrial revolutions need not be in doubt. The Hermetically Open project opens up that history with “an invitation to anyone wishing to consult or study sources belonging to the field of Christian-Hermetic Gnosis for personal, academic or other purposes.” Look for the digitization project to hit the web in the coming months.